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What are sunspots, what are the prevention and treatment methods?

Skin staining occurs due to reasons such as exposure to sunlight, exposure to various drugs or chemicals, or the presence of certain diseases. It is a common cosmetic problem.

The most common of the diseases that progress with staining on the skin is melasma (popularly called the mask of pregnancy). Melasma is an acquired, chronic and recurrent skin darkening that occurs in sun-exposed areas. It is seen in areas such as cheeks, forehead, upper lip and chin. It is usually characterized by symmetrical, irregular, well-defined, brown, gray or black patches. It is more common in dark-skinned women. Genetics, sun exposure and ultraviolet exposure are the most well-known etiological factors. Some physiological conditions such as pregnancy, some hormonal diseases and hormonal treatments such as birth control pills are common triggering factors.

Melasma treatment is difficult. The response of the drugs to the treatment is weak. It is generally long-term and requires patience. The side effects of the agents used in the treatment can also be seen.

In the treatment of melasma, the main goal is to be protected from ultraviolet rays. For this purpose, sunscreens (day covers) should be used, and equipment such as umbrellas, glasses, hats should be used. Besides, the use of bad make-up materials, cosmetic agents, birth control pills and sun-sensitizing drugs should be avoided.

Local peeling agents, peeling PRP, and laser applications are performed for the purpose of treatment. Although the treatments are satisfactory, prevention methods should always be continued.