Urticaria, known as urticaria among the people, is a rash characterized by numerous itchy, swollen and reddened rashes that can be seen anywhere on the body. They are very variable in size, be 1-2 mm or in the form of swellings covering large areas. The blisters are mostly itchy. The clinical picture may be exacerbated in the evening and during the menstrual period. Rarely, blisters can be seen on them. Lesions usually disappear within 24 hours without a trace. Severe swelling of the lips and eyelids may accompany the picture.
Urticaria is divided into acute and chronic. Acute urticaria lasting up to six weeks; Those that last longer than 6 weeks are called chronic urticaria.
In acute urticaria, symptoms affecting the whole body such as vomiting, weakness, headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea, joint pain, dizziness and fainting can also be observed.
The cause may not be found in 50% of acute urticaria. Medicines, foods, food additives, inhaled allergens may be responsible. The reaction develops within minutes.
In acute urticaria that occurs against drugs, symptoms are usually seen within 36 hours after taking the drug. The most common drugs are antibiotics (especially penicillin, cephalosporin, tetracycline, and sulfonamides). However, acetyl salicylic acid, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, radiocontrast agents, local and systemic anesthetics can also cause acute urticaria. Previous exposure to drugs, familial predisposition, intermittent and multiple drug treatment are among the factors that increase the risk of acute urticaria. Non-allergic urticaria may develop after some viral and bacterial infections.
Conditions where urticaria symptoms persist for more than 6 weeks are called chronic urticaria. Although the factor causing chronic urticaria is rarely detected, triggering agents are investigated.
As a potential trigger in chronic urticaria; drugs, nutrients and food additives, infections and infestations (infections caused by parasites), inhaled allergens, chemical allergens.
Some autoimmune diseases, menstrual cycle (menstrual period) and pregnancy,
Psychological reasons can be counted as factors.
The diagnosis of urticaria is made by the clinical appearance of the lesions and the history taken from the patient. The duration of the rash, the presence of systemic complaints and possible etiological factors are investigated. There may be urticaria attacks, which are examined by physical stimuli, pressure, heat, cold, water, and sun rays. There are special tests to detect all of them, but they must be performed in a fully equipped hospital as they carry risks.
The most important thing in urticaria is to avoid factors that worsen urticaria. Antihistamines; It is the drugs used primarily in the treatment, which corrects itching and swelling in many patients. Regular use of these drugs on a daily basis (whether there is a rash or not) is very important for a successful treatment, as they act by preventing the unpleasant symptoms of the disease. Since the duration of the disease can vary from person to person, long-term use of medication may be required in some cases. In resistant and special cases, drugs that affect the immune system (such as steroids and cyclosporine) or drugs administered by injection (omalizumab) can be used.