Possible reactions during and immediately after the crisis





prof. Dr. Murat İSKENDER

MAY 2020

Definition and Types of Crisis 3
Possible Responses to the Crisis Immediately and Immediately After 3
6 Things the School Counselor Can Do for Divorced Family Children and Adolescents


Definition and Types of Crisis

II. The crisis that came to the fore after the World War II, in fact, especially Freud,
emerged as a concept that many theorists included in their theories (Çetiner,
2019). In various theories, it has been considered as the turning points experienced by the individual. this acre
These are the situations that affect people’s life and need to be overcome. Rock (2015) crisis
defines it as “the individual’s reaction to the traumatic event”.
There are two types of crises: developmental and situational. Developmental crisis
These are crises that occur in periods of life or life periods and must be overcome.
Developmental crisis overcoming developmental crisis, such as gaining independence in early childhood
necessary crises. Life-cycle crisis, such as marriage, retirement and having children
they are associated with crises (Sandoyal, 2001).
When we look at the situational crisis, it is seen that they are of external origin. Natural disasters,
sudden losses and illnesses are examples of this type of crisis (James and Gilligand, 2012). It
crisis type can cause trauma (Demirli-Yıldız et al., 2018). emerge at once
emergence, need for rapid response, unexpected onset and impact on the social environment
are the aspects that distinguish situational crises from developmental crises (Slaikeu, 1990).
Possible Responses to the Crisis Immediately and Immediately Afterwards
All individuals are affected by the crisis in one way or another. to developmental crises
When looked at, the individual can overcome the crisis with family support and social support. A situational crisis
the individual thinks that his life and physical integrity are under threat. to this crisis
The initial response may vary from person to person. Before each individual crisis,
may show different reactions immediately and afterwards (Erdur-Baker & Doğan, 2018).

The first reactions seen in a crisis are physical, behavioral, emotional and cognitive reactions.
Divorce is not just a separation between parents, but rather the loss of all family ties.
means breaking. Many children are also affected by this condition, although it is not certain.
(Amato, 2010). Studies started in the 1960s with the increase in divorce rates,
In the 70s and 80s, the focus was on the consequences of divorce. in the 90s this
studies have been modified (Scanlan et al., 2003). 20th century humanity
showed the existence of a family structure that would be independent of parenting from marriage (Nock, 2000).
In recent years, studies have shown that children whose parents are divorced and
The effects on children were examined (Öngider, 2006).
In the light of the researches, the effects of divorce on children and adolescents
The effects depend on the age, gender, social environment and supportive elements of the child or adolescent.
may show variations depending on (Şirvanlı, 1998).
It is known that divorce also causes behavioral problems. of divorced couples
When the necessary social and psychological support is not provided to their children, anger disorder becomes a rule.
ignorance, anxiety, feeling of insecurity, depression, non-adherence to school, self-esteem
It was stated that they did not develop and self-confidence problems (Meriç, 2007).
When the children of divorced couples are examined, it is seen that the most affected
It has been emphasized that it occurs between the ages of 5-6, and that the gender factor is important. Especially
Girls between the ages of 5-6 and boys between the ages of 8-10 are not divorced.
It has been determined that it is more affected than other ages (Bilir and Dabanlı, 1991).
Divorce affects the life of all family members in terms of social environment, sexual life, economy.
affects. One of the most common situations after divorce is undoubtedly custody.
subject. If the parent who receives custody is the parent who does not receive it continuously, the previously determined
He is in charge of seeing the child at regular intervals and meeting his needs. divorced family
All members of the individuals can adapt by showing similar reactions to the divorce situation.

It should not be ignored that the life patterns of individuals will change completely.
is the case (Walczak and Burns, 2004).
Children and adolescents want their parents to start families again, this is the case for most
Time does not happen and children fall into disappointment and despair. this is guys
They perform the behavior in order to know the real reasons behind the divorce. It
It is for this reason that before the separation takes place, the situation and the reason for the divorce are given to children and adolescents.
should be conveyed clearly (Fritsch, 1985).
Parents who have agreed to divorce can consult psychological counselors if necessary.
by taking care of the mental and mental health of the children and adolescents in the family by getting help,
they should continue. Divorce and life order change in a situation that develops in the opposite direction
stress and its extensions are added to the situation (Çakmaklı, 1997).
Although divorced couples have problems among themselves or individually,
should meet the personal needs of the children, and the problems that divorce and its subsequent
must convince them that it is not about children. Even if they live in separate houses
They should express their love and make children believe that this love will never end.
(Darchis and Dercherf, 2008).
The decision to divorce should be told to the children at the same time and should be given a place where they feel safe.
environment should be used. Hearing this decision, the child may give different emotional reactions and in this case
The best place to feel comfortable is at home (Sevim, 2009). Child’s feelings after divorce
should be allowed to reflect. Otherwise, depression, separation anxiety, personality disorders
and problems such as attention deficit can be seen (Öztürk, 2008).
Considering the ever-increasing divorce rates since the 1960s,
to divorced couples to overcome the problems experienced by children and adolescents in this process,
social environment, educators and school counselors have a great job. It
It is very important that all stakeholders show the necessary effort to overcome the problems.
(Akyüz, 1978).
What the School Counselor Can Do for Divorced Family Children and Adolescents
The child’s first field of education is the family. Later, he showed his development and personality.
The place it creates is family. That is why the importance of family for children and adolescents
undeniable. But every family has a potential divorce. changing social structure,

The disruptions in cultural heritage and the consumer society increase divorces and this situation of every family.
reveals that he can live (Karahan, 2018).
Divorce can give two kinds of results for the child. At first glance
Parental separation and partial deprivation can make the child depressed,
anxiety can have consequences, and as such, various mental health impacts
can give. The second one is that the child is experiencing intense distress and trouble in the continuation of the process.
relief after divorce can be observed. The child’s academic success
It can be explained by positive aspects such as having an observable sportive life.
(Karahan, 2018).
The school counselor is not just divorced – within his competence – all
Students should know about their families. This situation is better for both students.
recognition and what opportunities should be given to the children of divorced families.
It is also important (Karahan, 2018).
Legal applications to families who are not divorced but are considering divorce and parents’
informing them also in terms of the rights they will have will enable the process to progress more understandably and
helps the child or adolescent to overcome emotional and behavioral problems by experiencing them less
can enable. Guiding on custody, without exceeding its qualifications and limits.
Being a school counselor can be counted among the responsibilities of the school counselor. (Karahan, 2018).
While consulting and meeting with divorced or divorced families and their children, all
stakeholders should be heard equally and both sides of the coin should be presented. Security
humiliating the student and his/her family and by the society
Offensive behavior should be avoided. However, situations such as violence and abuse
taking into account the duties and responsibilities of school psychological counseling
It is necessary to act with
Possible affective, behavioral and mental problems experienced by the divorced adolescent and the child.
necessary psychosocial and psychoeducational intervention, taking into account the problems
schedules or plans should be established and both parents and
children and adolescents should be included in the program. Adaptation of these children and adolescents
contributes to the process and helps them get through the process with the least amount of problems (Karahan, 2018).
The school counselor’s perspective on the divorce process and divorced families
must change to an objective angle during his mission. Making a negative contribution to the process

should avoid and provide psychosocial and psychoeducational assistance to the stakeholders (Karahan,