Gonorrhea (gonorrhea)

It is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It reproduces easily in moist and warm areas of the reproductive organs. It reproduces in the cervix (cervix), uterus (uterus), ovaries in women, and urinary tracts in both men and women. It can also be localized in the mouth, throat, eyes and anal area.


It is a common infectious disease.

Mode of transmission

It is transmitted by direct contact to the penis, vagina, mouth and anal area. It can be transmitted without ejaculation (semen discharge).

risk groups

Anyone who is sexually active can get gonorrhea.

Signs and symptoms

Some men with gonorrhea may have no symptoms. However, most men develop symptoms within 2-5 days, up to 30 days after being infected with the bacteria. Burning during urination, white, yellow or green discharge from the penis. Sometimes there is pain and swelling in the testicles.

Gonorrhea symptoms in women are mild. In most cases, no symptoms are noticed. Symptoms in women are nonspecific and can be confused with gallbladder or vagina infections. The first symptoms are pain and burning during urination, increased vaginal discharge or vaginal bleeding outside of the menstrual period. Very serious complications can develop regardless of the presence or severity of symptoms.

As a result of rectal (breech) infection in men and women, anal discharge, itching, pain, burning, bleeding, or painful defecation occurs. Rectal infections may also have no symptoms.

If a gonorrhea infection develops in the throat, there is usually no symptom, even if there is a sore throat.

Complications of gonorrhea infection

Left untreated, it can cause serious, permanent problems in both men and women. In women, inguinal inflammation occurs due to this infection. Symptoms can be mild, as well as with abdominal pain and fever. There may be inguinal abscesses. It is difficult to treat, it takes a long time, there is chronic groin pain. Ovarian ducts are destroyed as a result of infection, increasing the risk of infertility or ectopic pregnancy. An ectopic pregnancy is a vital condition. The fertilized egg settles outside the uterus, usually in the ovary.

In men, there is an infection in the tubes connected to the testicles. Pain develops. If left untreated, it can cause infertility.

Gonorrhea infection can also spread to the blood and joints. It is life threatening.

Those with gonorrhea are easier to contract with HIV, the AIDS virus. Those with both gonorrhea and HIV infection are more likely to transmit HIV infection than those with HIV infection without gonorrhea.

Effect on pregnant woman and her baby

If a pregnant woman has gonorrhea, the infection is transmitted to the baby through the birth canal during delivery. As a result, the baby may develop blindness, joint infection, or life-threatening blood infection. As soon as an infection is detected in the pregnant woman, the risk of complications is minimized by applying treatment immediately. All pregnant women should undergo appropriate examinations and tests and, if necessary, treatment.


There are various laboratory tests for diagnostic purposes. A swab is taken from the infected areas (cervix, urethra, rectum, throat) and sent to the laboratory. The first urine sample may be sufficient for infections in the cervix and urinary tract. The smears prepared from the swabs taken from these areas are stained with Gram stain and the bacteria are searched under the microscope. This test method gives better results in men than in women.


Gonorrhea is successfully treated with various antibiotics. However, with the emergence of drug-resistant bacterial types, treatments have become more difficult. Many patients have another sexually transmitted disease called chlamydia in addition to gonorrhea. Antibiotics for both are given together in treatment. People with gonorrhea should also be investigated in terms of other sexually transmitted diseases. It is important to use the given treatment until the end. Even if the infection ends with the drug, the permanent damage does not go away.

People who have been cured of gonorrhea get sick again if they come into contact with the sick person again. If the symptoms persist despite treatment, the person should consult their doctor again.


The surest way to avoid sexually transmitted diseases is to either not have sexual intercourse or have a long relationship with a single partner who is known to be uninfected and has negative tests.

Latex condoms reduce the risk of disease transmission when used correctly every time.

In case of discharge, burning, pain or redness while urinating, consult a physician immediately.

The partners of the person with gonorrhea diagnosis and treatment should also be examined, tested and, if necessary, treated. Thus, possible complications that may develop in these people can be prevented and they are prevented from transmitting the infection again and again. Patients should not have sexual intercourse until the treatment is concluded.