Fungal diseases are caused by parasites called fungi. Some of the fungi live on living things as saprophytes (useful microorganisms), but in some conditions they become (pathogen = disease-causing). Some of them are always disease-causing.
Fungal disease agents are roughly divided into two groups as yeast fungi and mold fungi. Immunity of the host, predisposing factors (poor hygiene, wetness, long-term antibiotic use, diseases such as diabetes, immunosuppressive treatment) play a major role in the formation of fungal diseases. It can hold all skin areas and appendages up to the nail.
HAIR FUNGUS (Tinea capitis); Most of them are caused by mold fungi. Scalp fungi are usually seen in childhood. Intra-familial infections are common. Some of them go away on their own in adolescence.
There are superficial and deep types. They create different images according to their settlements. In superficial types, dandruff, breakage and dulling are seen in a few large round areas of the hair. It is seen in childhood. This type of puberty can also pass by itself.
In favus (dry bald), the fungi settle deeper. Hair has fallen in the sick area. The rest are thin, grayish-ash-colored. There is a strange, foul odor. There are yellowish, crusty structures at the bottom of the hairs. The hairs are easily pulled. baldness occurs. If the fungus settles deeper (Kerion Selsi), a single or several nodules form on the scalp. The lesion is surgical and soft. The pus flows from them over time, the hair falls out, or it is easily pulled out as if pulling a hair out of butter. The lymph nodes near the diseased area are swollen. It heals by leaving a scar. These types are also usually seen in children.
Deep-seated fungi can affect the beards of adult males. (Sycosis parasiteria) creates a picture similar to the symptoms on the scalp.
BODY FUNGUS: (tinea corporis); Most molds are caused by fungi. Fungi can cause disease on the trunk, arms, legs and armpits.
The most common fungal infection in the young and middle-aged is “Pitriasis versicolor”. The disease has typical appearances with brown or white spots on the neck, trunk, back, armpits and dandruff that develops on it. Small plaques sometimes coalesce to form a map-like pattern on the skin. They create an appearance. The patient has no subjective complaints, but there is an appearance problem. The disease increases mostly in summer due to heat and humidity.
In another forum that settles on the body, it is the form called “herpes sirsine”, popularly known as “temperature”. It can settle on the body, sometimes even on the face. It makes patches that are reddened in the middle, dandruff, progressing in the form of small protrusions towards the environment. Itching, watering can be seen. This form is often confused with eczema. It is more common in those who are engaged in animal husbandry and those who keep cats and dogs at home.
HAND-FOOT FUNGUS (Tinea Pedis and manum); These fungal diseases can cause different images on the hands and feet. Sometimes they give a typical eczema look, sometimes they form red dandruff patches. Sometimes they form an image in the form of dry crusts, crevices. Itching is absolute. They can often be confused with diseases. Detection of the fungal agent from the lesions (native preparation) is the most definitive diagnosis method.
MUSHROOM (Tinea inguinalis); formed by most molds.
It is one of the most common fungal diseases. Most of the patients do not go to the doctor for a long time because they are ashamed of the examination of the inguinal region.
Inguinal fungus, mostly symmetrically, forms clear-demarcated, red-brown patches in both inguinal regions. There are vaguely protruding rednesses on the edges of the lesions. The inner side is more pinkish and scaly. There are traces of chafing in places. Inguinal fungus lesions can sometimes spread to the breech area, buttocks Inguinal fungus can cause severe itching, odor, watering and cracks in some patients, especially in overweight, diabetics.
NAIL FUNGUS (Onnichomycosis); formed by most molds.
It can affect all nails. It is seen more frequently on the big toes than other nails. The nails affected by the disease have discoloration (yellow-black), thickening, and coarsening. In the advanced stages, it is seen that the nails crumble and look like a moth bite. Sometimes the nails that cannot be cut become horny.
YEAST FUNGUS (Candidiasis):
Candida, which are generally found as saprophytes in the organism, become pathogenic due to disorders in the immune system and cause disease. Immunodeficiency diseases, diabetes, chemotherapy, high-dose antibiotic and cortisone treatment, and the formation of cracks in the skin due to maceration pave the way for candida.
Yeast fungi create a very common picture called “thrush” in the mouth in small babies. Again, they cause “rash” as a result of bad diapers and swaddling. (Swaddle Dermatitis)
Yeast fungi can cause whitish plaques such as thrush, redness and peeling in the mouth, tongue, lip corners, in adults and the elderly with low resistance. (Candidal glossitis, candidal perles)
Yeast fungi can cause odorous, cheese cut-like vaginal discharge in diabetic, pregnant, overweight and women who use antibiotics for a long time. The table is extremely itchy and uncomfortable. (Candidal vulvo-vaginitis)
Yeast fungi can also cause fungal disease in the nails. (Candidal onnichomycosis) Yellow-black color formation and thickening and coarsening are seen, especially in the bottom parts of the nails.