Fungi are organisms that settle and multiply on the skin, hair and scalp, and can only be seen with a microscope. All fungal diseases are highly contagious since these organisms are found in our environment, in nature, on shoes and slippers used, towels, public showers, gyms and fitness rooms, swimming pools, hotel and mosque carpets. These fungi like warm and humid environments to reproduce and reproduce by leaving their spores in these areas. It is transmitted from the area where it comes into contact with the skin. In addition, it can be transmitted from domestic animals such as cats, dogs, farm animals, to humans through contact if infected with the disease.
Hair fungus is common in children with low socioeconomic status in society. In these children, there is an appearance of white crust on the scalp, shedding the hair on it and opening. In deeper involvement, it starts as a small pimple and gradually enlarges, with large discharge and crusty lesions. If this deep form is not treated, it causes permanent baldness. The treatment takes an average of 6-8 weeks, and everyone around it should be questioned. In people living in rural areas and under poor hygiene conditions, lentil-sized, white yellow crusts stick to the hair, resulting in a picture called favus. This causes permanent baldness in the hair.
The trunk, arms and legs are the most frequently affected areas in body fungi. They usually have round, more prominent red lesions with fine white dandruff. It can grow over time and take the form of an indented map on the body. The average treatment with topical smears is 4 weeks. In patients with widespread lesions, oral drug therapy should be administered for 4-6 weeks.
In addition, fungi can cause similar itchy lesions in the beard area, face, eyebrow eyelashes and eyelids, groin. Facial and scalp fungi may occur in hairdressers with unsterilized materials. Inguinal fungus is more common in people who exercise excessively, sweat frequently, stay out of the house for a long time and do not comply with hygiene conditions.
Another form of fungal diseases that we often see is athlete’s foot. Sometimes it may appear as a white cottony wetness between the toes, which we call maceration, and sometimes as dry white crusting and redness that also affects the fingers and soles of the feet. In some patients, there may be white yellow water vesicles located especially on the soles of the feet. Foot fungus is very itchy and contagious. It is common to be transmitted by the use of shared shoes and slippers. Its treatment is approximately 6 weeks, and it is treated with oral medications if necessary. Between the toes and our feet are the most important entrance gate of the body. Not only fungi but also microbes enter through the cracks and crevices formed here. As a result, red, swollen, occasionally discharged wound and infection may occur on the entire foot and even on the leg. Therefore, foot care is very important for us dermatologists.
Hand fungus occurs in the form of white dandruff, reddened rashes on the hands. Often confused with eczema and sometimes psoriasis
The fungus can settle on the nail bed and plate through transmission from hand and foot fungi, sometimes in isolation. White or black thickening of the nail, shedding, deterioration in the shape of the nail can sometimes cause inflammation with discharge. Treatment of nail fungus is 3 months with oral medications and 6 months with lasting treatments.
Sometimes the fungal disease shows an increase, spreading to large areas, with cortisone drugs that can not get the correct diagnosis or the patients unconsciously take it because it is good for itching. Therefore, it is a disease that requires correct diagnosis and correct treatment. Fungal diseases are more common in people with immune system disorders, diabetes patients, and infants (in the mouth). Therefore, these patients should be followed up more carefully.
In my opinion, the most important reason for the prevalence of this disease in our society is that it is not taken very seriously. People with reddened rashes on the body or face must apply to the doctor. However, people with thickening of the soles of the feet, dandruff, thickening and color changes in the fingernails and toenails generally remain untreated. It can cause serious infections with the transmission of many microorganisms from these places. Since patients who apply to the doctor do not complete their treatment period, the disease passes and recurs. Treatment time is very important especially in hair fungus. Permanent baldness occurs when it is late, so early diagnosis and treatment should be done quickly.
We live in a city famous for its hot springs. In places with public use areas, including pools, bare feet should not be stepped on, and hygiene rules should be observed. Keeping the areas with frequent sweating dry and applying sweat treatments if necessary can prevent fungal diseases from occurring. It is extremely important to create and use the products that are frequently used in hairdresser and personal hygiene applications. It is essential that patients with nail or foot fungal infections at home receive treatment so that they do not transmit the disease to other households. People with varicose veins and circulation disorders should pay particular attention to foot and nail care.
In this article, I have tried to give you information about fungal diseases that we frequently encounter, and to give information about their treatment and precautions. I wish all my readers a healthy life free from fungal diseases.