Botox is a neurotoxin obtained by fermentation from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.
There are 7 types. Of these, only types A and B are used in medicine.
Clostridium botulinum was first described between 1817 and 1822 by the German physicist and poet Justinus Kerner.
In 1870, another German physicist Muller botulusmade the naming.
In 1895, Emile van Ermengem first Clostridium botulinumsucceeded in isolating the bacteria, and in 1944 Edward Schantz Clostridium botulinumdecomposed the toxin of the bacterium.
In 1949, Burgen et al. discovered the effect of botulinum toxin to reduce neuromuscular activities.
In 1973, Type A botox (BTX-A) was tested in monkeys for the first time.
In 1980, botox was officially used for the first time on people for the purpose of removing strabismus.
In November 1989, BTX-A (BOTOX) was approved by the FDA for the treatment of strabismus in the eye.
The first cosmetic effect of BTX-A was described by a husband and wife named ophthalmologist Jean Carruthers and dermatologist Alastair Carruthers.
On April 15, 2002, FDA Type A (BOTOX Cosmetic) approved that it temporarily softens the wrinkles between the eyebrows. BTX-A has also been confirmed to reduce underarm sweating.
Botulinium Toxin Type B (BTX-B) was approved for the treatment of cervical dystonia on November 21, 2000.
Since 2002, Botox has been successfully used in the field of cosmetics to remove wrinkles and regional sweating treatment. The effects begin to appear within 3-7 days following the application. These effects of the toxin begin to return in 3 months and are completed in 6 months.
Complications are very few with correct injection techniques, good knowledge of anatomy and appropriate dose adjustment. Side effects such as mild pain, edema, bruising and headache at the injection site can be seen for a short time and temporarily. These side effects can be reduced by cooling the injection site, applying local anesthetic cream and using paracetamol group pain relievers.
In order to prevent bruising, it would be appropriate for the patient to discontinue medications and foods such as aspirin and blood thinners, green tea, vitamin E, ginkgo, ginseng, fish oil, NSAIDs (painkillers) 1 week in advance.
One of the other undesirable effects is drooping of the upper eyelid. Although it takes 2-4 weeks, applying the right dose to the right place, not rubbing, standing upright for 3-4 hours after the injection prevents this side effect from being seen.
On the other hand, overdose causes catwoman, mask face, asymmetry, excessively raised eyebrows, dull face. This is mostly seen in applications made by unskilled hands.
Botox is a medical application and must be performed by a dermatologist or a plastic surgeon. Personnel other than a medical doctor should not perform the application.
The incidence of side effects in applications performed by experts in the subject is very low.