The importance of doing sports is among the issues that cannot be discussed. For this reason, everyone should determine their own style and turn to sports branches as well as daily small exercises. The health benefits of doing sports, which affect development positively, especially when started at a young age, will ensure the formation of both physically and mentally healthy individuals. The largest organ of our body is the skin, and skin integrity is more or less challenged in all athletes. Various skin diseases may occur in the form of traumatic injuries to the skin, injuries due to environmental factors, infectious diseases and the onset of skin diseases due to this strain.
In traumatic injuries, lesions that can be called friction bubbles can occur when a tight shoe is worn. This situation is frequently observed in the feet due to the humid and hot environment. It occurs intensely on the bony prominences of the feet such as the heel, sole and back of the foot. Similarly, calluses are frequently observed in these regions. It is generally painless, and it can become an advantage for the athletes with the loss of pain sensation in athletes who engage in weightlifting, gymnastics and tennis. However, horny calluses, which are the most common type on the side surfaces of the 5th nail of the foot, can cause pain. These can only be corrected with peeling creams and callus pads. Ingrown toenails, on the other hand, are observed as masses with inflamed, lively red bumps on both sides of the first nail, especially in individuals with wide feet, due to wearing inappropriate and narrow shoes. Burning the swollen mass with substances such as phenol after a surgical intervention in this very painful condition is a common treatment method and is applied in dermatology clinics. Bleeding foci in the form of a linear line on the heel, called the black heel, may occur in athletes. It is more common in those who play tennis and basketball. Black palms are frequently observed in people who are involved in weightlifting, gymnastics, golf, tennis, baseball and mountaineering. Piezogenic papules, which are called pressure blisters, are composed of many painful, skin-colored, raised lesions with a diameter of 2-5 mm on both sides of the soles of the feet. It can be found in 10-20% of women and children without any discomfort. It is the condition of herniation of subcutaneous fat tissue into the skin. It is common in long-distance runners. The condition called tennis foot or athlete’s foot is painful under-nail bleeding observed in the 1st and 2nd toes. Separation in the nail bed and thickening of the nail may also accompany the picture. This picture is frequently observed in runners and skiers. In the case called astroturf toe or grass toe, the finger is painful, red and swollen due to tendinitis, which is an inflammatory condition of the back of the big toe and the ligaments under it with sudden stops. In the condition called runner’s nipple, painful, cracked, reddened and sore nipples are observed. It is a condition that occurs due to the friction of clothing during running. Baldness is a picture that can be observed in tight-fitting sweatband wearers and gymnasts. This is a picture that occurs as a result of decreased blood supply or rupture due to trauma. Skin cracks are a picture that occurs regularly in weight lifters. In this case, connective tissue damage of the skin is observed. It can occur most commonly on the anterior surfaces of the shoulders, lower back and thighs. In this case, if acne, androgenetic baldness, and increased hair growth are accompanied, the athlete may be using anabolic steroids, which are considered doping. When the hormone taken in this table is stopped, the picture regresses. In athlete’s calluses, lesions in the form of hard bumps appear on the feet, back of the knees, and finger joints. It can occur in those who are involved in surfing, boxing and football. The swellings called pseudobursa that form on the back of the feet in those who wear tight sneakers and regress within weeks are called Nike nodules. Golfer’s claw, on the other hand, is the condition in which bleeding under the nail and dark areas in the form of lines may appear when the golf club is held tightly. Skier’s hand is the observation of lesions in the form of bleeding areas in the palm towards the thumb area. On the boatman’s hand, subcutaneous vascular damage and fluid-filled vesicles and calluses on the skin, called friction blisters, are observed. On the other hand, in the hooked thumb picture, peeling, blood-filled cysts, calluses and under-nail bleeding occur in the 1/3 outer region of the thumb tip of the hand in weightlifters. The resulting lesions are quite painful. Red bumps and pimples on the shoulders due to irritation of the uncut beard, especially in freestyle swimmers. The so-called runner’s hip is observed in the form of bleeding areas in the upper part of the hip folds in long-distance runners. The friction that occurs during running causes this situation. On the boatman’s hip, on the other hand, eczema-like raised, red and dandruff-like lesions occur as a result of sitting without a pillow. In the ballerina’s hip, there is an abscess between the two hips, and a picture of hair follicle inflammation is observed. Ping pong patches are observed as red lesions in the form of red spots 2-3 cm in diameter after the ball hits the back of the hand and forearm. In the stepper’s leg, hemorrhagic lesions in the form of rings and moons occur on the leg.
In addition, findings such as sun-related burns, eczema, and skin tumors can be observed in athletes as a result of heat damage due to environmental damage. As a result of cold injury, cold-related superficial frostbite is especially common in the face and neck region. In long-distance runners, frostbite may occur in the penis. In this case, blisters, which are fluid-filled vesicles, are observed in the first 24-36 hours. It heals within two weeks without leaving any scar tissue. As a result of water damage, some symptoms and infections can be observed due to water containing excessive chlorine. Skin traces are erased on the palms of the swimmers’ palms. In light-colored hair, green color changes may occur due to copper accumulation in the hair. It can be observed that old water pipes and antiseptics contain copper. Therapeutic measures such as washing immediately with shampoos bonded with copper or keeping 3% hydrogen peroxide for 3 hours can be applied. Aquagenic acne, on the other hand, is a condition that is observed with the irritating effect of hydration and chlorine on the hair roots for a long time. Itchy hives-like lesions are observed in swimsuit distribution areas in sea swimmer rash. Nausea, vomiting, headache, fever and swelling may occur in children. The table can last for 2-14 days. Jellyfish and sea anemones can cause this picture. In order to protect from this table, swimsuits of athletes should be washed well. Cerkerial juvenile forms of parasites, called non-human schistosoma, cause inflammatory reactions in fresh waters. Hives-like blisters are observed. Unlike the sea swimmer rash, there are also lesions in non-swimsuit areas. Bands containing benzoin and rubber can cause allergic contact eczema in athletes.
In addition, athlete’s foot and groin fungus, wrestlers can be seen in the body fungus, which can cause an epidemic. Fungal creams, powders and pills can be used in the treatment. In order to prevent contamination, it can be applied to pay attention to personal hygiene, to dry well, to use anti-fungal powders. Warts can be observed especially in pool sports. Molluscum contagiosum, which goes with wart-like lesions, can be transmitted between athletes by close contact. Hepatitis, AIDS and herpes viruses can also be transmitted between athletes through close contact. The herpes infection observed in wrestlers is called herpes gladiatorum. The head, neck and especially the right part of the face are affected in this picture, which is caused by the HSV-1 virus. Effective antibiotics and creams can be used for herpes treatment. Skin infections such as boils and hair follicle infections can be observed frequently among athletes. In these inflammatory cases, creams containing antibiotics and, if necessary, oral antibiotics can be used.
Rarely, friction acne in athletes may occur in the chin, neck and shoulder areas due to pressure, suffocation and heat. Antibiotic and peeling acne creams can be applied in the treatment. In the form of exercise-induced allergic reactions, urticaria and even severe allergic reaction tables that lead to shock called anaphylaxis can be observed in athletes. For such cases, 1 hour before exercise, non-sleeping allergy pills should be given. In addition, an oral cortisone pill can be given 12 hours before.
As you can see, although sports are beneficial for health, our skin, which is the largest part of the body, can cause many skin diseases after sports. However, athletes can prevent them by acting consciously. Especially summer athletes will be able to minimize these problems with measures such as using sunscreen creams, using appropriate orthopedic shoes and clothing, being careful about hygiene in shoes and even applying anti-fungal sprays, using barrier creams that provide heat protection in winter athletes, and completely drying the body after shower and bath. .