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Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacterium called trachomatis. This disease causes damage to the reproductive system of women. Even if the symptoms of chlamydia are mild or absent, serious complications can occur before women realize their infection, leading to irreversible destruction and even infertility. Infected males have discharge from the penis.


It is very common. But most people are unaware of their illness. That’s why they don’t do their tests. Also, tests are often neglected while the person is being treated for their complaints. If their sexual partners are not treated, women become infected again and again.


Chlamydia is transmitted during vaginal, anal or oral sex. It is also transmitted from an infected mother to her baby during vaginal delivery.

Anyone who is sexually active can become infected with chlamydia. The greater the number of sexual partners, the greater the risk of contracting an infection. Adolescent girls and young women will be more prone to infection because their cervix is ​​not fully mature, and if they are sexually active, the risk of contracting chlamydia infection increases. Since chlamydia can be transmitted by oral or anal sexual intercourse, the risk of contracting this disease is also high in relationships between men.

Signs and symptoms

Chlamydia is known as a silent disease. Because the vast majority of infected people do not have symptoms. If it gives symptoms, it occurs within 1-3 weeks after being infected.

In women, the bacteria primarily infest the cervix and urinary tract. Those with symptoms may experience abnormal vaginal discharge and burning when urinating. If the infection has taken place in the ovarian ducts (these ducts carry the fertilized egg from the ovaries to the uterus), there may be no symptoms in the person, as well as lower abdominal pain, low back pain, nausea, fever, pain during sexual intercourse, bleeding between two menstrual periods. Chlamydia infection in the cervix can spread to the rectum (lower intestine).

Men with signs and symptoms have a discharge from the penis and a burning sensation during urination. There may also be burning and itching around the tip of the penis. Pain and edema in the testicles are not uncommon.

In the anal sexual intercourse, the infection of the woman or man involves the rectum on the receptive side. Rectal pain, discharge, and bleeding are seen. This infection can be found in the larynx of men or women who have oral sex with an infected person.

Complications that may occur if left untreated

If chlamydia infection is not treated, it can lead to reproductive and other health problems in the long or short term. Like the disease itself, its destruction progresses silently.

In women, if left untreated, the infection spreads to the uterine or ovarian ducts and causes inguinal inflammation. It occurs in 10-15% of untreated infected women. In addition, infection occurs in the ovaries without any complaints. With the progression of inguinal inflammation and silent infection, damage develops in the upper reproductive systems, ovary canals, uterus and surrounding tissues. Chronic inguinal pain, infertility and ectopic pregnancy are seen due to this destruction.

Those with chlamydia infection are at high risk of becoming infected with HIV when confronted.

To avoid these, sexually active women aged 25 and under should be screened once a year. In older women, it is important to have regular screening tests, as the presence of a new sexual partner or multiple partners is an important risk factor. All pregnant women should also have chlamydia screening tests.

Complications are rare in men. The infection sometimes spreads to the epididymis (the duct that carries sperm from the testicles). Pain, fever, rarely infertility.

In rare cases, besides genital infection, arthritis, skin rashes, inflammation of the eyes and urinary tract are seen. This is called Reiter’s syndrome.

Effect on pregnant woman and baby

Pregnant women can have premature birth if they are not treated. A baby born to an infected pregnant woman may develop a disease in the eyes and respiratory tract. Pneumonia and conjunctivitis due to chlamydia are seen in newborns.


Blood tests for chlamydia are done.


It is easily treated with antibiotics. The same treatment is applied to HIV+ people. All sexual partners must be evaluated, tested and treated if necessary. Those with chlamydia and their sexual partners are prohibited from having sexual contact until the treatment is finished. Otherwise, they will become infected again.

Women are at increased risk of being reinfected if their sexual partners are not properly treated. Women with multiple infections are at increased risk of reproductive organ complications, including infertility.

Tests for chlamydia should be repeated 3 months after the initial infection has been treated. This is especially important for women who do not know whether their sexual partner has been fully treated.


The surest way to protect yourself from sexually transmitted diseases is to avoid sexual contact or to lead a long-term, monogamous life (with a tested, known non-infected partner).

If the condom is used correctly and every time, from the beginning to the end of sexual intercourse, the risk of chlamydia transmission is reduced.

Women aged 25 years and younger and older women with new or multiple partners are eligible to be tested once a year. All pregnant women should also have the test. It can even be done more often in some women.

The presence of symptoms such as a different wound, smelly discharge, burning sensation during urination, bleeding between periods should suggest sexually transmitted diseases. If a woman has any of these symptoms, she should stop sexual intercourse and consult a specialist immediately. Treating sexually transmitted diseases early prevents inguinal inflammation.

Women who are told to have a sexually transmitted disease and those being treated should warn their previous sexual partners (up to 60 days ago). Thus, these people are also examined and treated if necessary. All sexual acts should be avoided until everyone’s treatment ends.