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Cellulite and cosmetic applications

Cellulite ; It is a clinical condition of adipose tissue, caused by the accumulation of excess fat in the connective tissue, which a large proportion of women in particular suffer from. Cellulite formation is due to the deterioration of microcirculation and weakening of the connective tissue. The symptom of cellulite is usually the formation of an orange peel appearance. Different methods are being developed to improve the appearance of cellulite and increase microcirculation.

Although cellulite is not considered as a medical disease, it is an important cosmetic problem. While this is a normal physiological condition that begins to occur at the end of adolescence, it is an increase in pregnancy and lactation periods for women. Although it becomes more prominent with weight gain, it is also seen in thin women. The reason why it is mostly seen in women is because female hormones have an effect on skin metabolism. Steroid sex hormones cause fat accumulation in the skin, especially in the hips and calves, and the formation of secondary cellulite. The decrease after menopause is also explained by this hormonal mechanism.

Although cellulite does not receive serious attention in the scientific world, it has become the problem of most women. Cosmetic applications in this area result in unsuccessful treatment methods when the mechanisms are not fully understood.

Subcutaneous adipose tissue cells are cells with a radius of 50 micrometers, filled with 95% oily substance. As the fat cells carrying a large number of hormones grow, they form cluster-like fat lobes. These include capillaries and lymphatic vessels. The growth and enlargement of these fat cells puts pressure on the vessels located here, and the fluid return weakens and circulation is impaired. Fluid from the veins and lymphatic vessels escapes into the tissue and creates edema. The lipolysis process aimed in the treatment is the breakdown of triglycerides into small fatty acids, their removal from the cell and the prevention of new fat production.

Stimulation of beta receptors from adrenergic receptors on the surface of these cells causes fat destruction, and stimulation of alpha 2 receptors causes fat production. Therefore, the main purpose of treatment is to stimulate beta receptors and inhibit alpha 2 receptors. Xanthines are substances that stimulate beta receptors, suppress alpha 2 receptors, and inhibit phosphodiesterase enzyme, and are found in cosmetic products for therapeutic purposes.

Reducing the symptoms of cellulite

1-Use of different active substances and herbal extracts (oral or topical)

2-The application of localized mechanical effect (massage), heat and energy systems

3-It is applied with a protocol in the form of active life and correction of food intake.

There is a scientific literature study showing that many active substances and herbal products in the first group are effective for very few of them.

An active lifestyle, doing sports, regulating food intake, reducing the formation of cellulite is a method accepted by everyone. Although fat cells shrink with weight loss, tissue destruction does not regress. For this reason, the most important approach in treatment is to maintain the ideal weight and to strengthen the connective tissue with sports. It has been reported that applications such as massaging the cellulite area and warming the area are also effective in reducing the symptoms of cellulite.

With the test we call the cellulite pinch test, when the hip or leg is compressed to create a cushion between the two hands, bumps and dimples in the skin can be graded. Zero degrees; The skin surface is normal in both standing and supine positions. It is possible to reverse this situation and remove the accumulated liquid. Second degree; In the supine position, the skin surface is smooth, standing, it is a distinctive appearance even without pinch test. Third degree; It is the appearance of cellulite in both standing and supine position. At this stage, there is microcirculation disorder, fluid accumulation, increase in fat synthesis and deterioration in metabolism.

As for the products used in the treatment, xanthine derivatives (caffeine, theophylline, theophyllineacetic acid, aminophylline), retinoic acid derivatives, phytic acid and its salts, betulinic acid and vitamin C, antiestrogenic substances, niacinamide, plant extracts (Terminalia catappa, Polygala tenudonifolia, Platyna. grandiflorum, Kochia scoparia, Hibiscus abelmoschus, Ruscus aculeatus, Cola nitida, horse chestnut, gingo biloba extract, Gotu kola etc.) are used by acting with different steps.

In addition to these topically used drugs, there are drugs that are taken orally orally. N-acetylglucosamine to thicken the skin, Vitamin C to reduce the effect of the enzyme that destroys collagen, Zinc and manganese to strengthen the skin by binding to collagen and elastin fibers, amino acids (lysine, pyrroline, cysteine, glycine, methionine) that help skin thickening, hydroxyl that prevents the conversion of carbohydrates into fat. substances such as citric acid, chitin that binds the fat in the intestine and prevents it from being absorbed, gingo biloba, ginseng, which increases the blood supply to the skin, grape seed extract that prevents the oxidation of the connective tissue, etc. are used with different commercial preparations.

In a study conducted in 1996, it was shown that cellulite symptoms regressed by reducing skin fat cells and increasing lipolysis in device applications applied in the treatment of cellulite. Subcutaneous fat tissue temperature is increased up to 40 -41.5 degrees with the use of ultrasound and radiofrequency microwave as energy source. In another patented study, it has been suggested that cellulite treatment can be performed with the application of electromagnetic waves.

Although the US Drug and Food Association (FDA) reported that topical creams used for cellulite change the structure and functions of the skin, it may be more appropriate to classify them as drugs, but there are no limiting conditions in this regard. Due to the risk of allergy, preparations containing aminophylline are followed with concern. In addition, the preparations applied for mesotherapy should be examined as products that should be applied by a specialist physician since they are applied into the skin.