Acne vulgaris is a disease of the structure called pilosebaceous unit, which is formed by the hair unit and sebaceous glands in the skin. Although it is often seen in adolescence, it can occur at any age. It is seen at a rate of 85% during adolescence. It can also occur after puberty due to the overproduction of hormones called androgens in women.
CAUSES OF ACNE VULGARIS
Multiple factors play a role in the development of acne. With the effect of hormones produced with puberty, oil secretion in hair follicles increases. In addition, the cells in the hair follicle multiply and adhere to each other, forming plugs. This creates an environment suitable for the overgrowth of bacteria on the skin and inflammation occurs. The relationship between nutrition and acne formation has not been clearly demonstrated. Long-term use of oily cosmetic products can trigger acne formation.
SYMPTOMS OF ACNE VULGARIS
Acne vulgaris lesions are most commonly located on the face, then on the back and chest. Lesions are divided into inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. Comedones, known as non-inflammatory lesions; It appears as open comedones in the form of black dots or closed comedones in the form of white dots. Inflammatory lesions appear as raised reddish or purulent formations on the skin (papulopustular acne) and deep, hard, cystic lesions (nodulocystic acne).
DIAGNOSIS OF ACNE VULGARIS
The diagnosis of acne vulgaris is made by clinical presentation.
ACNE VULGARIS TREATMENT:
Treatment of acne vulgaris varies according to the type and intensity of the lesions. Whatever treatment is chosen, it should be used patiently and regularly. Cleaning soaps, lotions and gels can be used to aid treatment. In all treatment methods, an increase in acne lesions can be seen in the first month.
1-Benzoyl peroxide: It is a drug that prevents the growth of bacteria on the skin. It also has a mild peeling effect on the skin. It can be used alone or in combination with antibiotics in mild to moderate acne.
2-Azeleic acid: It is an antibacterial and mild peeling effective drug. May cause skin discoloration.
3-Local retinoids: It is a drug with a pronounced peeling effect. It is especially effective in comedonal acne. May cause skin redness, irritation, dryness. Retinoids increase the skin’s sensitivity to the sun. They are used alone or in combination with antibiotics.
4-Local antibiotics: Erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline and nadifloxacin are used for acne treatment. They are used with other drugs to prevent antibiotic resistance.
5-Oral antibiotics: They are preferred in papulopustular acne. For this purpose, tetracyclines and macrolide antibiotics are used. Antibiotic treatment is usually continued for 3 months. They are used with other drugs to prevent the development of resistance.
6-Oral isotretinoin: They are effective in severe papulopustular or nodulocystic acne. The total dose to be taken according to the weight of the patient is calculated and given to the patient in a period of 6-8 months. The most obvious side effect is dryness of the skin and mucous membranes. It can cause muscle-joint pain. Since it can increase liver enzymes and blood fats, patients should have blood tests at regular intervals. Its use during pregnancy is dangerous for the baby; Therefore, patients should be protected from pregnancy during the treatment and until 1 month after the treatment. In addition, patients should not donate blood during this period.
COURSE OF ACNE VULGARIS
Acne vulgaris begins in adolescence and usually resolves by the age of 23-25. Rarely, there are cases that continue until the age of 40. Treatment should be started as early as possible to prevent scarring.