It is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by recurrent episodes of redness, erythema, pustules and telangiectasia in the face area. Rosacea particularly affects women over the age of 30.
The exact pathophysiology of rosacea is still debated. Studies have shown that the disorder is not only in the flora called the skin microbiome; It is stated that changes in the gastrointestinal microbiome also have effects on the formation of this picture. There are also studies related to additional gastrointestinal pathologies such as bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease, Helicobacter pylori infection.
Patients often apply to us with secondary symptoms such as itching, burning or stinging. Clinical types; erythematotelegentasic, papulopustular, phymatous and ocular rosacea. It affects 0.9% and 10% of the population. Its incidence is increasing in fair-skinned female individuals over the age of 30.
Apart from genetic predisposition, well-defined risk factors are alcohol consumption and UV exposure.
Increased densities of Demodex mites, ie parasites (both Demodex brevis and D. folliculorum) were seen on the skin of patients with rosacea. These mites live in follicles called pilosebaceous units, where their food source is sebum or protein. Moreover; Increasing cytokines (interleukin-8 (IL8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in the skin of the individual they settle due to the immune stimulus caused by these parasites) promote angiogenesis, that is, the vessel, causing the development of prominent telangiectasias in rosacea patients.
Ocular Rosacea, one of the special clinical types; If left untreated, it can cause chronic eye and eyelash infections. (such as chalazion, corneal infiltration). Patients experience dry eye, burning and stinging in the eyes, and recurrent eyelash infections.
In addition, Phymatous type that causes growth in the nose; There is also the Fulminan type, which is a very inflammatory picture with severe papules, pustules, nodules and cyst lesions on the face.
Although a number of rosacea treatments are currently available; Most treatments target different symptoms rather than the underlying cause of the disease.
Treatment usually begins with extensive patient education. Especially common triggers; sun exposure, temperature changes, spicy foods and alcohol consumption.
As we have mentioned before, since it is a chronic disease and is affected by triggers, keeping a diary would be a correct practice in terms of identifying stimuli that aggravate the symptoms.
Since the skin structure of each individual is different, moisturizing and cleansing cosmetic products suitable for the individual should be preferred. You can get help from your dermatologist about these products. Proper use of the product will also positively affect the treatment response, as it will ensure that the skin barrier and hydration are healthy.
Due to the triggering and aggravating effects of UV light, which we know very well, we strongly recommend the use of daily sunscreen.
However, avoidance of the trigger does not always lead to symptom remission, that is, treatment, but supports it.
Therefore, in patients; It is used together with individual pharmacological treatments or laser treatments according to the severity, clinical type of the disease.
Similarly, we can also use probiotic supplements and omega 3 for the purpose of regulating the intestinal microbiome, based on studies that have been shown to be effective.