Gum bleeding is an important health problem that concerns the majority of the society and occurs as the first symptom of many different diseases. Bleeding in the gums is the first signal sign that the gums are sick and that there is a fire (inflammation) that needs to be extinguished. Some systemic diseases, some drugs used, hormonal disorders, some types of cancer we call leukemia, coagulation disorders, blood thinners, some tumors in the mouth, first appear as gingival bleeding.
What Does a Healthy Gum Look Like?
Healthy gums are pale rose pink in color, encircling the teeth like a cuff, ending like a sharp knife, rough like an orange peel. Redness, shine, swelling, metallic taste, feeling soft like a sponge when pressed, normal brushing, spitting, bleeding when biting hard food such as an apple, one or more of these symptoms together are the symptoms of the disease. The average temperature of the gums is 35.4 degrees. Wash your hand and put your index finger laterally on your gums, a careful person can immediately feel the temperature increase in patients with bleeding gums. It is a sign of fire (inflammation) in the gum, the fire should be extinguished before it progresses.
Why do gums bleed?
If the gums are not cleaned regularly and the microbial plaque accumulated between them is not swept away, this bacterial plaque forms a biofilm. Enlargement and growth occur in capillary (capillary) vessels, harmful factors, enzymes and endotoxins of bacteria increase the permeability of the gingival groove epithelium, thus inflammation and ulcerations occur. Sensitive capillaries eventually rupture at the slightest trauma, causing blood to escape from the epithelium. This is the mechanism of bleeding gums.
What happens if the bleeding gum is not treated?
If gingival bleeding is left to its own devices and its treatment is neglected, it leads to chronic inflammation of the gingiva, which we call gingivitis, and then to the appearance of progressive inflammatory disease of the fibers that allow the tooth to hold in the jaw bones, which we call periodontitis, and the edges of the jawbone. In a vicious circle, this disease progresses and stops until the teeth are completely loosened.
How to Prevent Gingival Bleeding?
Bacterial plaques need to be removed regularly after eating every meal. Teeth should be brushed with the right methods using a soft toothbrush, not a hard one, without wetting the brush and using a non-abrasive toothpaste. If there are gaps between the teeth, interface brushes called proxabrush should be used. There are many people with gingivitis who avoid brushing their teeth because it bleeds when I brush. This thinking is wrong, it only helps your disease progress and your teeth fall out. If the disease progresses and turns into periodontitis, sometimes a decrease in bleeding is observed. Our patients do this; In the past, my gums were bleeding, now my bleeding has decreased, but this time my teeth were separated, they moved away from each other and my teeth began to play, as if my teeth were loose.
In any case, treatment should not be neglected by referring to a periodontist, a gum disease specialist. Some people also have an obsession with excessive cleaning, this time using a hard brush with excessive pressure leads to bleeding gums, tears in the gums, and abrasions on the teeth.
What are the systematic disorders that cause gingival bleeding?
1- Gingival bleeding can be seen in women during menstruation.
2- Birth control pills cause gingival bleeding.
3- Using anticoagulant drugs for a long time.
4- Prothrombin deficiency.
5- Acute Ulcerative Gingivitis.
6- Thrombocytopenic Purpura.
7- Acute Leukemia .
8- Vitamin C, Folic Acid deficiency.
9- Gingival growths and intraoral tumors.
10- Acute Herpetic Gingivostomatitis.
11- Overflow fillings, crown edges inserted into the gingiva.
12- Irritations, traumas, oral burns.
How is Gingival Bleeding Treated?
The foremost rule in all gingival treatments is to find the cause and eliminate it. Most of the time, the patient is relieved by the elimination of local factors. Oral, dental and gingival care, periodic controls, and serious prevention of bacterial plaque removal and reoccurrence should not be neglected. Most cases in more advanced cases cannot be eliminated with initial treatment. When there is the slightest suspicion of gingival bleeding due to acute leukemia, aplastic anemia, coagulation and bleeding disorders, it is vital to seek a hematologist consultation.