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We will talk about vitamins, which are a very important food group for our body.

In the simplest definition, vitamins are organic compounds that must be taken from outside in trace amounts in order for the human organism to develop health and repair itself.

Vitamin deficiencies in humans occur as a result of inadequate intake, impaired intestinal absorption or increased need compared to intake.

Vitamins are divided into fat-soluble and water-soluble;


VITAMIN A : It melts in fat. It is found in the green pigments of plants such as turnips, spinach and cauliflower. Vitamin A deficiency slows bone and tooth growth. Saliva secretion is reduced or completely eliminated. As a result of dry mouth, cracks occur in the gums and oral mucosa. When oral health is not taken care of, microorganisms settle in these cracks and cause infections. For this reason, the healing in the oral tissue is delayed.

In Vitamin A deficiency: Degeneration occurs in the collagen fibers and the periodontal space widens. Again, in the deficiency of this vitamin, hypercementosis and delayed tooth eruption may occur.

In excess of Vitamin A: In hypervitaminosis, epithelial degeneration, delayed healing, osteoporosis (bone resorption), significant bone resorption in alveolar bone, skin pigmentation, peeling and itching, menstruation disorders occur.

VITAMIN D : Provides normal mineralization of bone. The daily dose of vitamin D in growing children, pregnant women and lactating women is 400 UI. Most of this dose is provided by sunlight. It serves by the absorption of vitamin from calcium and intestine. The vitamin is necessary for bone formation.

In vitamin D deficiency: It causes rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults.

VITAMIN E : Found in soybeans, corn, cottonseed oil, fresh greens and vegetables. The amount needed daily is 12-12 IU. It is also found in eggs and meat. Vitamin E is an antioxidant. Vitamin E prevents toxic products of oxidation, which is essential for cell elements.

Deficiency of Vitamin E : It can cause degeneration in the cell epithelium. Vitamin E deficiency causes irregularity in muscle development in children. It has been observed that the application of vitamin E in people with gum disease does not affect the inflammation.

VITAMIN K : It is used to make prothrombin in the liver. In its absence, symptoms related to blood occur. It is synthesized by bacteria normally found in the intestines.

In vitamin K deficiency: This vitamin is very necessary for the body, as problems with bleeding and scurvy arise.


PRIDOSINE (Vitamin B6) : It is found in brewer’s yeast, liver, rice, bran and wheat, and various vegetables. The daily requirement of vitamin B6 in adults is 2 milligrams.

In vitamin B6 deficiency : Various symptoms occur in an adult. The first observed muscle weakness, fatigue and tendency to sleep. Skin diseases are seen on the lips, in the folds of the nose, around the eyes, around the cheeks, on the forehead, behind the ears and on the lower back of the neck. Inflammation occurs in the tongue and mouth. There are cracks on the lip edge.

THAIMIN (Vitamin B1) : It is found in green vegetables, fish, meat, fruit and milk, legumes and especially peas. In the case of cooking, if the temperature rises above 100 degrees, it loses its vitamin feature. Foods that are kept cold and frozen do not lose their vitamin B1. An adult human needs one milligram of Thiamine per day.

In thiamine B1 deficiency : Beriberi disease is seen. Among the problems seen in the mouth are burning in the tongue, loss of taste, hypersensitivity in the oral mucosa. Thiamine and other B1 vitamins inhibit the growth of bacteria found in human saliva.

RIBOFLAVIN (Vitamin B2) : Dairy and meat products are the main source of this vitamin. It is very resistant to heat. It does not lose its effect during cooking. It is degraded by sunlight. Adults should get 1.2 milligrams per day.

Riboflovin deficiency : It is usually seen on the lips, tongue, eyes and skin. Inflammation occurs at the edge of the lip. There is a rough and granular appearance on the tongue. Touching food and drink on the tongue causes pain and a burning sensation. In some cases, the tongue takes on a purplish, red or purple color.

NICOTINIC ACID AND MYCOTINAMIDE : Niacin participates in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism by providing electron transport in mitochondria. The vitamin is found in meat, liver, brewer’s yeast and peanuts.

In nicotinic acid and mycotinamide deficiency : A disease called pellagra occurs. The main findings in pellagra disease are found in the oral cavity. Burning sensation in the oral mucosa, the side of the lips and tongue are red and swollen. In later periods, the top of the tongue continues as red and swollen. Decays are also seen in the gingival epithelium. Gingivitis, ulcers in the papillae between the gums, enlargement of the salivary glands, increased salivation

Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin) : Foods of animal origin are a storehouse of Vitamin B12. These are liver and kidney, milk cheese. The daily requirement is 2-5 micrograms.

In vitamin B12 deficiency : Its symptoms include inadequate hematopoiesis, gastrointestinal tract disorders, inappropriate myelin synthesis, and general weakness. Anemia occurs. Atrophic changes are observed in the digestive tract. A lemon yellow color appears on the skin. Another consequence is pernicious anemia. Pernicious anemia has many oral symptoms. These are red spots on the tongue that are accompanied by burning and soreness and come off repeatedly. The papillae of the tongue are atrophied. There are red lesions on the cheek, throat mucosa and on the back of the tongue.

Folic acid (Pterolglutamitic acid) : Folic acid is found in liver, leafy green vegetables, and brewer’s yeast. The World Health Organization recommends taking 200 gamma grams for adults, 50-100 gamma grams for children, and 400 gamma grams during pregnancy and lactation.

In folic acid deficiency : Megaloblastic anemia picture occurs. Oral manifestations are glossitis, angular chellitis and gingivitis. Glossitis begins with swelling and redness of the tongue, followed by shedding of the tongue papillae and ulcers bordered by a red ring. Angular chelitis; It is characterized by cracks and redness on the lip edges. (We have mentioned gingivitis in our previous articles).

Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) : Ascorbic acid is found in large quantities in citrus fruits, green peppers, tomatoes, fruits and generally vegetables. More than 50 percent of the ascorbic acid found in foods is broken down during the cooking process. The recommended amount to be taken daily is 45-80 milligrams.

In vitamin C deficiency: The main emerging disease is scurvy. It is not seen today.

May your beautiful smiles be missing in healthy and happy days.