It is a branch of science that aims to treat disorders by providing movement in the teeth by applying a mechanical force to normalize the tooth-facial structures or by directing or accelerating the forces formed during the function of the head-facial structure in individuals who are in the growth and development process or have completed this process.
one – Mismatch between tooth sizes and jaw sizes. If the sum of the mesio-distal lengths of the teeth is equal to the total arch length of the jaw, the teeth are aligned properly.
However, if the total mesio-distal dimensions of the teeth are more than the total arch length of the jaw, crowding occurs (5 people sitting in a 3-person chair), diastema (such as 3 people sitting in a 5-person chair) is less than the total arch length.
2-The mismatch of the lower and upper dental arches in three directions of space is called malocclusion.
Anteroposterior direction mismatches:
Class 1 malocclusion:The lower-upper canine and first molars are in normal closure relative to each other, but there is any anomaly in the anterior region.
Class 2 malocclusion: It is the closure of the lower-upper canine and the first molars behind each other (distal) than normal. If the upper anterior teeth are protruding, it is class 2 div 1, and if the upper anterior teeth cover the lower anterior teeth like a box, it is class 2 div 2.
Class 3 malocclusion:The lower-upper canine and first molars are in mesial bite compared to normal.
Horizontal direction mismatches:It is a crossbite in the posterior teeth region, which is generally seen due to the narrowing of the maxillary dental arch.
Vertical direction anomalies:It is an open bite (Open bite) between the lower and upper anterior wise teeth.
3- Skeletal disorders:
In the front-to-back direction:Skeletal class II: Forward positioned maxilla.
Skeletal class III: Anteriorly positioned lower jaw.
Skeletal class III: posteriorly located maxilla.
Skeletal class II div 2 (Biprotrusion): Both the lower and upper jaws are positioned forward.
In horizontal direction:Anomaly that occurs as a result of stenosis in any jaw.
In vertical direction:Skeletal anterior open bite.
A- Disruption of the relationship between the lower and upper dental arches during function
B- Anomalies due to dysfunction of the face and mouth region (such as swallowing, speech disorders)
METHODS OF ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT:
A- GENERAL MEDICAL THERAPY.
B- PHYSIOLOGICAL TREATMENT
C- PROTECTIVE TREATMENT
D- JOINT PROSTHESIS-ORTHODONTİES APPLICATIONS
E- SURGICAL-ORTHODONTI JOINT APPLICATIONS
F- CLEAN LIP-PAAL TREATMENTS
G- MECHANICAL THERAPY
H- REINFORCEMENT TREATMENT