gum diseases


In cases where personal hygiene practices such as tooth brushing and interdental cleaning are not performed or are not carried out effectively, bacterial plaque accumulation and tartar formations occur on the tooth surfaces, gingival margins and in the gingival pocket. If the inflammation caused by these structures is limited to the gingiva, it is called gingivitis, and if it affects the bone tissue surrounding and supporting the tooth, it is called periodontitis.

​ ​

Gum diseases (periodontal disease) is an infectious disease that affects the tissues surrounding and supporting the tooth, not the tooth. Even teeth that have no caries can be lost due to this disease. Periodontal diseases can affect one or more teeth; It is the most common chronic disease in the society that can be seen in children, adolescents, adults and the elderly. Since it is usually painless, the symptoms are hardly noticed by the patient and in most cases, a late referral to the physician is made.

Supporting tissues around the teeth; They are the fibers that connect the gum, tooth root, jawbone and the root of the tooth to the jawbone, and this structure is called “periodonsium”. Conditions where the infection only affects the gums are called “gingivitis”. Symptoms of gingivitis; It is red, swollen, shiny, soft-consistent and easily bleeding gingiva. Bleeding is the most important symptom.

In more advanced cases, the conditions in which the gingiva and other tissues mentioned above are affected are defined as “periodontitis”. Symptoms of periodontitis; gingival bleeding, red/bluish-purple discoloration, gingival recession, gingival enlargement, tooth displacement, spacing, elongation, swaying, abscess formation, tenderness and bad breath. Pain is usually accompanied by abscess formation. As a result, infection, aesthetic defect, loss of chewing, and a diseased infrastructure that cannot carry the prosthesis to be made in the periodontium occurs.

What are the types of periodontal disease?

The type of periodontal disease is an important factor affecting the success of periodontal treatment. There are many types of periodontal disease. The most common are:


It is the mildest form of periodontal diseases. The most important cause is microbial dental plaque. It is noticed by edema, red color, shine, bleeding during brushing or spontaneously, and bad breath in the gingiva. During this period, there is either no or very little pain. Gingivitis is fully curable with treatment and proper oral care. In addition, objects penetrating the gingiva also cause abscesses and acute pain in the gingiva.

Chronic periodontitis

It is the most common type of periodontitis. It is present in most adults. It progresses very slowly, its symptoms are late and hardly noticed, or it is considered normal and ignored. For this reason, sometimes treatment may be delayed. It is the infection and destruction of the supporting tissues surrounding the tooth. Respectively, the gum, the fibers connecting the gum to the tooth and the tooth root to the tooth bone, and the dental bone melt, forming a pocket. Microbial dental plaque and tartar on the root surface under the gingiva, as well as bacteria and food residues in the pocket space, accumulate and multiply, causing this infection to progress to deeper tissues and reduce the bone support of the tooth. Symptoms; dark red, purplish gingival color, gingival recession/growth, tooth spacing, elongation, rotation, swaying, dysfunction, filling of food residues between teeth and into pockets, abscess formation, bad breath, aesthetic disorder. While initial and moderate chronic periodontitis is treated with non-surgical methods, advanced chronic periodontitis is treated with additional surgical methods. Some systemic diseases such as diabetes and diseases affecting the immune system, factors such as stress and smoking affect the severity of chronic periodontitis and its response to treatment.

Aggressive periodontitis

It is a type of periodontitis that is less common but more severe and affects younger individuals. This condition can also be hereditary. Individuals are systemically healthy. There are two types, local and common. In the local type, gingival-related clinical symptoms are few, but pocket depth and bone destruction are advanced. In the common type, both clinical signs are noticeable and bone loss has affected more teeth. Its treatment is more difficult and complex than chronic periodontitis.

Periodontitis with systemic diseases

Periodontitis; It can also be seen as an intraoral symptom of some blood diseases, metabolic diseases, genetic diseases and diseases that affect the immune system. The treatment is carried out together with the medical doctor.

Periodontal diseases causing necrosis

They are periodontal diseases that start from the top of the triangular gingiva that fills between the teeth, leading to the destruction of the gingiva (necrosis) and, if not treated, progressing to bone resorption. It is more common in smokers, those under psychological stress, those with poor oral hygiene, and AIDS patients. Patients complain of severe pain.

Gum abscess and periodontal abscesses

Foreign substances that sink into the gums cause abscesses in the gums. There is red color, swelling and tenderness in the relevant area. In cases with advanced bone resorption and untreated, periodontal abscesses that affect deep tissues occur with the increase in the number of bacteria in the periodontal pocket. It shows symptoms such as pain, swelling, red – purplish color, bleeding, pus flow.