gum diseases

Periodontology is the branch of science that deals with the diseases that occur in the tissues surrounding the teeth, in other words the gums and the bones surrounding the tooth roots, and the treatment of these diseases.

Periodontitis disease; It is an important gum disease that causes the tooth to stay in the mouth, destroys the soft tissues and the bone that provides the main support. A depth called the gingival pocket is formed under the gingiva, where bacteria can accumulate. Periodontitis, if left untreated, may cause tooth loss or indirectly increase the risk of serious health problems such as heart attack and stroke. Periodontitis is a common and often preventable disease. It develops as a result of the progression of gingivitis as a result of inadequate oral care. Regular brushing and flossing every day, periodic dental cleanings performed by the physician prevent the formation of periodontitis to a large extent.

Patient Complaints and Symptoms of the Disease:

  • swollen gums
  • Bright red or purplish gums
  • sensitive gums that bleed when touched
  • Gingival recession and longer-looking teeth
  • Opening the distance between the teeth
  • Pus coming out between the teeth and under the gums
  • bad breath
  • Bad taste in mouth
  • swinging teeth
  • Feeling of incompatibility between your teeth while chewing

These symptoms vary from patient to patient.

When to Go to the Physician

Healthy gums are firm and light pink. If your gums are puffy, dark red and bleed easily, or if they show other symptoms of periodontitis, see your dentist right away. The sooner you request treatment from your doctor, the less you will be affected by the devastating results of periodontitis and protect your general health. Although there are different types of periodontitis, the most common one is chronic periodontitis, which affects individuals over the age of 35. The type of periodontitis that affects children, young and adult individuals is defined as aggressive periodontitis.


Some complications of gum disease may come as a nasty surprise. Studies have shown that the bacteria responsible for periodontitis enter the bloodstream and affect different parts of the body. For example, bacteria can reach the heart vessels and trigger the inflammation process that can cause vasoconstriction in that area. This means that the process that results in a heart attack begins.

Complications Caused or Accompanied by Periodontitis:

  • Bad breath
  • tooth loss
  • coronary artery disease
  • Stroke
  • low birth weight
  • uncontrolled diabetes
  • breathing problems

Flap Operation (Pocket Elimination Surgery)

This procedure is performed to eliminate the focus of the disease, which we call the gingival pocket (shallowing the pocket), and to regain the lost bone tissue. The gingiva is removed by making some cuts, as if cutting a long nail from the gingival margin. By opening the gingiva, the inflammatory tissue under it is cleaned, the root surface is cleaned and smoothed by seeing it easily. Bone shape can be corrected and bone augmentation procedures are applied if possible. The gingiva is given an anatomical shape and sutured back into place. This procedure is usually done on half of one jaw at a time. If the whole mouth needs such a treatment, the treatment ends in a total of 4 sessions, once a week. The operation of a region takes approximately 45 minutes – 1 hour.

Soft Tissue Grafts:

As a result of periodontitis or due to some anatomical reasons, the gingiva may recede and sometimes this may require a gingival transplant to that area. To explain without going into details, gingival transplantation takes place in the form of removing a thin piece of gingiva from your palate and suturing it to the missing gingiva. This process both positively affects the aesthetic appearance, covers the exposed root surface and protects the root from external factors (bruises), and indirectly contributes to the long-term health of the region by ensuring that the area is cleaned easily. In the advanced stages of periodontitis, the melting of the bone surrounding the tooth root will also increase. Depending on the shape of the melting, a bone graft of approximately 0.5 – 1 mm is applied to the bone loss area in order to regain sometimes all or some of the lost bone. These grafts can be synthetic or organic. The bone graft applied aims to keep the tooth in the mouth as a result. The bone graft placed creates the appropriate environment for the patient’s own bone to be made and provides the necessary encouragement.