## Golden Ratio in Facial Aesthetics

The “Golden Ratio”, which expresses beauty in nature and is used in mathematics and art, is also used for the ideal human form. The golden ratio, which is also valid in aesthetic surgery, aims to achieve the perfect human face. The golden ratio, which is expressed as the ratio of the large to the small, directs the facial aesthetics in particular. Before plastic surgery, it is absolutely necessary to follow the golden ratio calculation or approach this ratio. Associate Professor from Memorial Ankara Hospital, Department of Aesthetic, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Dr. Alper Ural gave information about the golden ratio in facial aesthetics.

What is the golden ratio?

The golden ratio, known in mathematics as the golden quotient, golden mean or divine ratio; is the ratio of a line segment divided into two segments of different lengths, such that the ratio of the whole segment to the longer segment is equal to the ratio of the longer segment to the shorter segment. The golden ratio, which is a geometric and numerical ratio connection observed between the parts of a whole and thought to give the most competent dimensions related to harmony and aesthetics, is used in mathematics and art. The golden ratio, discovered by the ancient Egyptians and Greeks and used in architecture and art, is an irrational number like pi (π) and is written in the decimal system; It is 1.618033988749894…. The symbol used to express the Golden Ratio is Fi or Φ. The ratio of 1.618, known as the golden ratio, has been used for design purposes in architecture and art since the earliest civilizations. This ratio also applies to the ideal human form. When the proportions of the body and face are equal to the golden ratio, the perfect human body appears.

What is the golden ratio in face and aesthetics?

Today, the golden ratio applied to facial beauty serves as a guide for aesthetic treatments. First, there should be a ratio of 1.618 between the length and width of the face. Secondly, the length of the nose and the distance between the lips and the eyebrows should match this ratio. Third, the length of the face is measured over the distance between the tip of the chin and the junction of the eyebrows. Then, the ratio of the width of the nose to the length on the lip is checked. The distance between the tip of the eye and the eyebrow should be in harmony with the golden ratio. The distance from the tip of the chin to the nose and from the tip of the chin to the lower lip is measured. The nose stands proportionally in the middle 1/3 of our face. In aesthetic surgery, the most intervened part is the nose and lip distance. Because this distance, which is too long, makes the person look old and sad. Lip lift surgery is performed to shorten the distance between the lips and mustache area. Another aesthetic operation performed to achieve the golden ratio is the chin implant or fat tissue transplantation to provide facial proportion.

How is the golden ratio calculated?

of a line segment |AB| When it needs to be divided into two parts in accordance with the Golden Ratio, this line should be divided at such a point (C); of the small part |AC| to the big piece |CB| ratio of large part |CB| all straight |AB| be equal to the ratio.

Golden Ratio is an irrational number like pi (π) and it is written in decimal system; It is 1.618033988749894… Brief representation of this ratio (√5+1)÷2is in the form.

In order to define and better understand the Golden Ratio, we first start by drawing a square;

Defining the golden ratio

When this square is divided into two equal rectangles…

When the common side of the rectangles begins to be drawn with the compass placed at the point (point C) where the common side of the rectangle intersects the base of the square and is extended to the base of the square with its radius being the diagonal of this rectangle.

When the newly formed shape is completed into a rectangle, a new rectangle is obtained next to the square.

The ratio of the base length (B) of this new rectangle to the base length of the square is the Golden Ratio. The ratio of the base length of the square (A) to the base length of the large rectangle (C) is the Golden Ratio. A / B = 1.6180339 = Golden Ratio C / A = 1.6180339 = Golden Ratio

This rectangle we get is a Golden rectangle. Because the ratio of the long side to the short side is 1.618, that is, the Golden Ratio.

How are the golden ratios calculated?

The ratio of the length of the face to the width, the ratio of the length from the nose wings to the tip of the chin to the distance between the middle of the lip and the tip of the chin, the ratio of the distance from the outer (canthus) point of one eye to the outer (canthus) point of the opposite eye to the horizontal length of the lip, the distance between the lip and the eyebrow junction. The ratio of the nose to the long neck, the ratio of the distance between the chin and the middle of the lip to the distance between the middle of the lip and the nose wings, the ratio of the distance from the hairline to the nose wings to the distance from the nose wings to the chin tip, the basic golden ratio relationship in the face area, and the ideal golden ratio are calculations.

Is the golden ratio calculated before surgery in facial aesthetics?

Before plastic surgery, it is always a matter of following or approaching a golden ratio calculation, whether with numerical measurements or with predictive approaches. Before cosmetic surgery of the facial area, patients often make requests in accordance with the golden ratio, consciously or unconsciously, when showing the areas they want to be changed or intervened.

Can everyone have the golden ratio in face and aesthetics?

The truth is that everyone has a different facial structure and therefore different proportions within themselves. When evaluating the proportions of the aesthetic units of the face; Some people are close to the golden ratio, while others are very far from the golden ratio. Faces approaching the golden ratio are generally considered aesthetic, beautiful and attractive by everyone. However, faces with a golden ratio may also lose the golden ratio on their face over time. As a result of various factors such as stress, aging, malnutrition, inactivity, and gravity, the ideal face shape may change and the golden ratio may disappear over time. Even in such cases, it is still possible to approach the golden ratio again with plastic surgery operations and non-surgical aesthetic interventions to be performed over time.

What is profiloplasty?

Profiloplasty, as the name suggests, means correcting the profile of the face. With profiloplasty, instead of correcting a single area on the face, it is corrected together with the surrounding structures. In fact, profiloplasty refers to a holistic approach that includes all of the interventions that include parts such as nose surgery, chin, lips, forehead, cheekbones required for the improvement and beautification of the profile of the face. As with the golden ratio, profiloplasty also focused on the importance of facial relativity. It may be insufficient to focus on a single point while performing an aesthetic surgery or procedure. Therefore, a holistic facial evaluation should be made in aesthetic interventions, and interventions should be made by paying attention to the measurable golden ratios on the face. The face can be beautiful and aesthetic only with a holistic view and approach. Many more operations such as chin implants, chin fillers, lip lift, lip augmentation procedures, cheek implants, cheek hyaluronic acid fillers, fat injections, rope suspension applications, face lift, neck lift, chin reduction, chin augmentation, chin liposuction, sub-components of profiloplasty it could be. After the face evaluation of the people, the ideal ratios should be explained to him and other necessary interventions should be suggested. In other words, profiloplasty is the shaping or restructuring of all facial structures in harmony with each other by evaluating them as a whole profile.

What is the relationship of profiloplasty with the golden ratio? What does face math mean?

There are certain angles and distances measured so that the aesthetic sub-units and structures that make up the face can be in harmony with each other. Therefore, these angle measurements are also very important mathematically while performing the aesthetic analysis of the face. Golden ratio facial aesthetic procedures should be done by considering a harmony and ratio. For example; It should be recommended that a person with an underdeveloped, short or backward chin despite nasal aesthetics and reduction of the nose be brought to normal size by applying a chin implant or chin filling at the same time or later, that is, approaching the golden ratio, and this should be targeted. Otherwise, it may create the illusion that the nose is still relatively large. Similarly, it can cause the forehead to be flattened, flattened or the nasofrontal region, which is the transition angle line between the nose root and forehead, to appear wider. In order for a patient whose upper lip distance is too long to reach the golden ratio during this profiloplasty, an additional lip lift operation may be required. Similarly, the fat fillings to be made on the forehead for the flattened forehead increase the convexity and support the nose-to-chin relationship, making the face look more beautiful. Many similar examples could be given. Especially in male patients, changing the contour of the head with a hair transplant of a few centimeters from the side, or camouflaging the chin in the chin area, which is actually a little small and the back chin appears to come forward or approaching the normal size, can be considered as a minor component of profiloplasty.